5f 3 Dative and Accusative cas'^, in Bengali and Hindustani, On the Connection of the. Ihma, from alp Lo, blood ; Sumwal (op- posite the battle field, the old capital of the taloquh) from trvpil Sd XXm * Alexander tain memorabili victoria Isetus, qu^ sibi orientis fines apertos esse censebat, soli victimis csesis, &c. But, on the other hand, what has become of the names of the towns and villages founded by the Greeks in this country during a period of a thousand years.
Accordingly a large number of the villages have names derivable from Greek roots ; as for instance, Luh- ree, from Xopds, sweet, delicious. It is curious that Ara signifies in the language of the country, a stone platform, or altar. It is very true that all these have Hindi terminals, and that many are Hindi or Persian words.
The question is curious, and if the reader will refer to the map of the Jelum so often quoted, he may in five minutes be, if not edified, at least amused.
235 movement to cross the Hydaspes having been to the left rather than to the right. That the features of the ground and of the river eleven miles above Julalpoor do in no wise agree with Arrian’s minute de- scription. That the features of the ground and of the river eleven miles above the Jelum ferry tally with Arrian’s and Curtius’s descrip- tions in every particular : for which compare the accounts of those authors with my map of the Hydaspes in the number of this Journal for Dec. Is it a mere flight of fancy, or do I really trace this Anabasis in the names of the villages which mark the course of the invader ?
Even Alexander’s capital in Huzara is Sikun- durpoor, which is a translation of Alexandria.
We find in the old sites, their coins, their sculptures, their years, covering that period of their dominion ; but only in a single instance* have I met with a Greek name unchanged.
Higher up, and little more than eleven miles from the grand camp, upon the high bank of the river basin^ is the village Ahra, quasi dpd, prayer ; in this case addressed probably to the river gods or to Apollo, to whom he sacrificed* after the victory. The river channel under Ahra is recent and may not then have existed ; in which case, the island of Chunnee, and perhaps the small island beyond it, formed part of the Western bank ; the latter being the point of embarkation.
Arrian truly describes it as being more than a mile wide during the monsoon.
In both cases the victory was for the stranger, and the child of the soil was subdued.
In both cases also the battle was fought on the eastern bank, the Sikhs insanely throwing away the formidable advan- tage which the high western banks of the very dangerous river Hydas- pes would have afforded them.
But as Alexander could not at that time use the ferry, it is not improbable that his camp may have been higher up the stream where the islands commence.
I have in that map placed the camp of Alexander opposite the present Jelum.
Many were drowned in the panic attempt to ford the Hydaspes at Miani.